The first press in Argentina appeared in Córdoba in 1764, brought by the Jesuits to serve the University there. It lasted only until the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767. It would not be until 1780 that printing in the viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata would begin again, this time in Buenos Aires. The JCB holds no fewer than 20 imprints from this press printed prior to 1791. During the wars of independence, the Buenos Aires press was the principal voice of the Republican forces, chiefly through the Gazeta de Buenos Aires, of which the JCB holds nearly a complete run.
Four of the books in this collection are included in the Indigenous Languages collection.